Earthquakes and volcanoes - class-VIII

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In which of the following continent, there is no active volcano? 

  1. Asia

  2. Africa

  3. Europe

  4. Australia

Correct Option: D

There are no volcanoes on the Australian mainland that have erupted since European settlement, but some volcanoes in Victoria, South Australia, and North Queensland were witnessed by Aboriginal people several thousand years ago.

The area associated with the greatest frequency of earthquakes is ____________________.

  1. Eastern coastal areas of Asia

  2. Northern coastal areas of Europe

  3. West coast of North and South America

  4. Western coastal areas of Africa

Correct Option: A

The point from where earthquake originates is called ____________.

  1. Crust

  2. Earth

  3. Surface

  4. Focus

Correct Option: D

An earthquake is the shaking of the surface of the Earth resulting from a sudden release of energy in the Earth's lithosphere that creates seismic waves.

An earthquake's point of initial rupture is called its focus or hypocenter. The epicenter is the point at ground level directly above the hypocenter.

Sometimes hot molten rocks formed inside the earth are forced out through openings in the earth's surface such as the craters in volcanoes. What is the molten rock inside the earth called? 

  1. Magma

  2. Sludge

  3. Coal tar

  4. None of these

Correct Option: A

The Himalayas are generally divided into three ranges which do not include:

  1. Siwalik

  2. Greater Himalayas

  3. Karakoram

  4. Lesser Himalayas

Correct Option: C

The Himalayas are generally divided into three ranges which are Siwalik, Greater Himalayas and Lesser Himalayas. The Karakoram or Karakorum is a large mountain range spanning the borders of Pakistan, India, and China, with the northwest extremity of the range extending to Afghanistan and Tajikistan.

Tick the correct answer.
Which the largest continent?

  1. Africa

  2. Asia

  3. Australia

  4. None of these

Correct Option: B

Asia is the largest continent. It covers about one-third of the total land area of the earth. The continent lies in the Eastern Hemisphere. 

Which of the following is the farthest from the centre of the earth?

  1. South Pole

  2. Antarctic Circle

  3. Tropic of Capricorn

  4. Equator

Correct Option: D

Tectonic plates float independently over the _________. 

  1. Crust

  2. Mantle

  3. Inner Core

  4. Outer Core

Correct Option: B

The movement of tectonic plates is due to thermal energy from  _______.

  1. Mantle

  2. Crust

  3. Inner Core

  4. Outer Core

Correct Option: C

The movement of tectonic plates is due to the enormous amount of thermal energy generated in the inner core and transferred to the mantle thus, causing movement in the tectonic plates.

Option $C$ is correct.

Collisions of plates produce mountain ranges and other irregular surface features in ________.

  1. Land

  2. Ocean floor

  3. Both A & B

  4. None of the above

Correct Option: C

In the transform boundary, the plates ________. 

  1. slide horizontally past each other

  2. pull away from each other

  3. moves toward each other

  4. sinks under another

Correct Option: A

What is the location where sinking of plate occurs called?

  1. Sinking Zone

  2. Subduction Zone

  3. Sliding Zone

  4. Boundary Zone

Correct Option: B

How many million years ago, Indian Plate was a part of Gondwanaland?

  1. 100

  2. 120

  3. 180

  4. 250

Correct Option: D
Approximately 140 million years ago, Indian plate broke away from the ancient
supercontinent known as  _______.
  1. Pangaea

  2. Gondwanaland

  3. Both A & B

  4. Angarland

Correct Option: B

The Gondwanaland, comprised of modern Africa and _________.

  1. Australia

  2. Antarctica

  3. South America

  4. All of these

Correct Option: D

Continental Plates are _________.

  1. thinner than Oceanic Plates

  2. thicker than Oceanic Plates

  3. equal in thickness to Oceanic Plates

  4. None of the above

Correct Option: B

The great rift valley of East Africa is a notable example for the process of ________.

  1. folding

  2. faulting

  3. volcanic activity

  4. none of the above

Correct Option: B

According to plate tectonics, the plates are in constant motion with an average rate of ________ per year.  

  1. 1 cm

  2. 2.5 cm

  3. 3.5 cm

  4. 4 cm

Correct Option: B

In Convergent boundary, plates  __________.

  1. moves toward each other

  2. slide horizontally

  3. pull away each other

  4. All of the above

Correct Option: A

The fragmented outermost layers of earth are known as _____.

  1. Crusts

  2. Plates

  3. Cores

  4. Zones

Correct Option: B

Currently, geologists are working on the theory of plate tectonics. Geologically speaking, a "plate" is a large, rigid slab of rock. The theory of plate tectonics states that the earth's outermost, rigid layer, the lithosphere, is fragmented into a dozen or more irregularly shaped plates that are riding atop a hotter, more mobile material, the asthenosphere.

Wettest place on Earth is _____________.

  1. Nongpoh

  2. Cherrapunji

  3. Jowai

  4. Baghmara

Correct Option: B

Sohra (temporarily called Cherrapunjee or Cherrapunji) is a subdivisional town in the East Khasi Hills district in the Indian state of Meghalaya. Sohra has often been credited as being the wettest place on Earth, but for now nearby Mawsynram currently holds that distinction.


Tectonic plate boundaries may be _________.

  1. Convergent

  2. Divergent

  3. Both $(1)$ and $(2)$

  4. None ofthese

Correct Option: C

There are three kinds of plate tectonic boundaries: divergent, convergent, and transform plate boundaries. A divergent boundary occurs when two tectonic plates move away from each other. When two plates come together, it is known as a convergent boundary. 

Which of the following movement give rise to continents?

  1. Orogenic movement

  2. Epiorogenic movement

  3. Rapid movement

  4. Mass movement

Correct Option: B

 The word Epeirogenetic consists of two words viz, 'epiros' means continent and 'genesis' means origin. So eperiogenetic movement gives rise to the continent. Epeirogenetic movement causes upliftment  and subsidence of continental masses through upward and downward movements respectively. Both, the movements are vertical movement. 

The movements in the interior of the earth caused by continuous and slow emission of energy are called _____________.

  1. slow movement

  2. weathering

  3. rapid movement

  4. mass movement

Correct Option: A

The Powerful internal forces operating from within the crust are called Earth Movements which bring about vast changes on the earth's surface are called Earth Movements. They may be slow and sudden. Slow movements occurs at a very slow rate and continue much longer as compared to our life span. These movements are relative to each other, the land advancing against sea is termed as negative movement and the sea advancing on land is known as positive movement.

Mountains and continents are formed due to ___________.

  1. rapid earth movement

  2. slow earth movement

  3. weathering

  4. erosion

Correct Option: B

Mountain and continents are formed due to slow earth movement. Slow forces include both vertical and horizontal movements which are caused due to forces deep within the earth. These forces operate very slowly and their effects become discernible after thousands and million of year. 

The surface relief of the earth is moulded by which of the following forces?

  1. Tectonic

  2. Gradational

  3. Both a and b

  4. None of the above

Correct Option: C

When the tectonic plates move away from each other it is called _____________.

  1. convergent plate

  2. drifting plate

  3. static plates

  4. none of the above

Correct Option: B
The movement of the plates results in the building up of stresses within the plates and the continental rocks above, leading to folding, faulting, and volcanic activity. When the tectonic plates move away from each other it is called a drifting plate.

How many major tectonic plates are there on earth?

  1. 5

  2. 7

  3. 8

  4. 10

Correct Option: B

There are seven main or “primary” tectonic plates: these are the African Plate: Antarctic Plate, Eurasian Plate, Indo-Australian Plate, North American Plate, Pacific Plate, and South American Plate.

From which sea the Himalayan mountain was emerged?

  1. Dead sea

  2. Mediterranean sea

  3. Tethys sea

  4. Caspian sea

Correct Option: C
The Himalayan uplift out of the Tethys sea and subsidence of the northern flank of the peninsular plateau resulted in the formation of a large basin.

In which one of the following is the Himalayan pass Shipki La located?

  1. Chandra valley

  2. Hunza valley

  3. Nubra valley

  4. Sutlej valley

Correct Option: D

In Sutlej valley the Himalayan pass Shipki La is located. A spur road on the Indian side rises to an altitude of 4,720 metres (15,490 ft) four km southwest of Shipki La. It is located in Kinnaur district in the state of Himachal Pradesh, India, and Ngari Prefecture in Tibet, China.

Match the following:

Mountain passes in Himalayas States
A. Chang la 1. Arunachal Pradesh
B. Shipki la 2. Himachal Pradesh
C. Zoji la 3. Jammu and Kashmir
D. Bomdi la                                      4.  Jammu and Kashmir

  1. A - 3, B - 2, C - 3, D - 1

  2. A - 3, B - 2, C - 4, D - 1

  3. A - 2, B - 3, C - 4, D - 1

  4. A - 3, B - 1, C - 4, D - 2

Correct Option: A

             Mountain passes in Himalayas             States

        A. Chang La                                             1.Jammu and Kashmir
        B. Shipki La                                               2.Himachal Pradesh
        C. Zoji La                                                    3.Jammu and Kashmir  
        D. Bomdi La                                                4. Arunachal Pradesh

The Indian sub-continent was originally part of ________.

  1. Jurassic landmass

  2. Aryavarta

  3. Indiana

  4. Gondwana continent

Correct Option: D

Slow movements take place in _________ direction.

  1. horizontal

  2. vertical

  3. both a and b

  4. none of the above

Correct Option: C

Vertical movements are responsible for the rise or fall of a portion of the earth surface. Vertical movements of the earth do not disturb the horizontality of the strata. Vertical movements cause uplift and subsidence.

Horizontal movements are greatly responsible for deranging the horizontal surface of the earth because of the working of forces of Tension and Compression. The tension is responsible for the breaking of rock layers with their subsequent sliding or displacement. It is termed as the formation of a 'fault'. The compression leads to the bending of horizontal layers of deep sediments into a shape known as a 'fold'. 

The movements that give rise to mountains are called ______________.

  1. rapid movements

  2. epiorogenic movements

  3. orogenic movements

  4. none of the above

Correct Option: C

The word Orogeny is derived from a Greek word 'Oros' meaning mountain. The orogenic movements are due to horizontal forces in earth's crust, as a result of which rock-strata are crumpled and folded. It is this movement that give rise to mountains.

Tick the correct answer.
The mountain range that separates Europe from Asia is  

  1. the Andes

  2. the Himalayas

  3. the Urals

  4. none of these

Correct Option: C

Asia is separated from Europe by the Ural mountains on the west (Figure 5.1). The combined landmass of Europe and Asia is called Eurasia (Europe + Asia).

Which one of the following is most prone to earthquakes?

  1. Coastal plains

  2. Old shields

  3. Plateaus

  4. Young folded mountains

Correct Option: D

Which of the following rocks are formed from the volcanoes?

  1. Sedimentary rocks

  2. Metamorphic rocks

  3. Igneous rocks

  4. Aqueous rocks

Correct Option: C
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